The Angolan population suffered severely
during the long civil war of 1975–2002 and most
residents are still tormented by the suites of the war
years. Angola places itself in the bottom tier of the
world's countries in the UN agency's UNDP ranking of
human development. About half the population is expected
to live in poverty, that is, survive on less than two
dollars a day.
During the Civil War, millions of Angolans were
forced to flee - within the country or abroad. It was
only the southern provinces of Namib and Huila that
largely escaped the war actions. The vast majority of
refugees returned home after the end of the war, but
there they were usually met by demolished housing and
schools, and both healthcare and agriculture were
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Angola, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
The social consequences of the war are still evident,
not least among young adults. A large part of these
could not attend school during the war years and many
orphaned children were exploited by the warring parties
as child soldiers.
Thousands of children have been driven from rural
poverty to urban slums, where they live as begging
street children. The children who remain in the
countryside often work in agriculture.
Health care is under construction, but work is slow.
Most Angolans do not have access to care at a reasonable
distance from the home, and although they do, they
usually cannot afford to pay for the care. Many people
therefore seek help from traditional medicine men. In
many places, clean water is also missing at a reasonable
distance from the homes.
Big social differences
Angola earns large revenues on the sale of oil,
natural gas and diamonds, but the profits are rarely
shared by the majority. Instead, the country's economic
and political elite are enriched, and as a result, the
social gaps in society are growing.
In the capital Luanda, oil revenues have led to a
construction boom. New residential areas and skyscrapers
have grown up in the 2010s, often with the help of
Chinese money. Luanda has become one of the most
expensive cities in the world to live in. Today, the
city that was built for a few hundred thousand people is
in need of more than six million. Kåkstäder has also
grown up in the city center. To prepare land for new
construction, thousands of poor Angolans have been
relocated to suburbs far outside the center, where all
infrastructure and access to water are lacking.
Four out of ten Angolans suffer from malnutrition.
Among children under five, about half are malnourished.
Infant mortality and mortality among children under five
are among the highest in the world. Nowhere else do so
many women die during childbirth as in and around the
capital Luanda. However, the biggest cause of death is
malaria. Tuberculosis, cholera and diarrhea also often
lead to death. These diseases have their source in
poverty, as they spread where clean water and
functioning sewers are not available. Epidemics of polio
as well as deadly marburg fever also occur.
Angola has few HIV-infected residents compared to
neighboring countries. More than 2 percent of the adult
population carry the AIDS virus according to
calculations from 2014. The reason for the relatively
low proportion of HIV infected is likely that the
country was quite isolated from the outside world during
the war years. In provinces near the borders, for
example towards Namibia, the proportion is several times
higher. The government has conducted large awareness
campaigns on HIV.
At least 70,000 residents have been forced to
amputate any body part as a result of mines exploding.
No other country in the world has an equally high
proportion of residents who are amputated due to mines.
Although efforts have been made to clear mines, a large
number of undetected mines are estimated to remain in
the ground. It is mainly women who are hit by the mines
when they are out to fetch firewood or water.
The Angolan women have a relatively strong position
in society and they often take an active part in both
political and economic life. The legislation gives men
and women equal rights and gender discrimination is
prohibited. Despite this, women usually have lower
education than men and more girls than boys leave school
early. This is often due to teenage pregnancies or the
need for girls to work in the home. Especially in the
countryside there is violence and abuse of women. Child
abuse is also common. Sexual sexual intercourse is
prohibited by a law from colonial times, but penalties
are not imposed.
The family and the family are central social and
economic networks in a country where society's common
social security networks do not work. Only a small part
of the Angolans have wage jobs and those who have a job
often share their income to unemployed relatives.
Several generations usually live together in the same
household. Cousins are often described as brothers and
sisters, and more adults than parents take part in the
Many Angolans have lost family members in the war and
many homes have been torn apart due to the fighting.
After the war, there are significantly more women than
men, and in rural areas, women often act as heads of
families. Divorce is common in some areas, not only
because of the war but also of tradition. Often, spouses
live apart because they have to seek livelihood in each
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
52 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
2.0 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
1.2 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.3 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
41.0 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
49.9 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
2.9 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 95 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
31 percent (2018)
Parliamentary elections are held for the first time
in 16 years
Parliamentary elections are held. The MPLA government
wins as expected a landslide victory and receives 175 of
the 220 seats.