Overpopulation, widespread poverty, violence,
lack of work and natural disasters have resulted in more
than one in eight Haitians (mainly the well-educated)
being abroad - most in the United States, Canada and
countries in the Caribbean, especially the Dominican
Although small improvements in living standards can
be seen during the 2010s, these have come from a very
low level. According to the UN Social Development Index,
Haiti ranked 168th among 189 countries in 2017. A large
proportion of the population lack access to clean
drinking water and only one in four Haitians have access
to a proper toilet. About 60 percent of residents, most
in rural areas, lack primary care. Around seven in a
hundred children die before the age of five, most in
Latin America. One reason is that just over half of
children are vaccinated against measles before the age
of one, compared to over 90 percent in most other Latin
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Haiti, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
Through relief efforts, diseases such as malaria,
tuberculosis and measles have declined, but Haiti has
the highest proportion of AIDS patients among the
countries of the Caribbean. About 150,000 adult Haitians
were estimated to live with HIV / AIDS in 2016, while
4,600 the same year died of the disease, which has made
almost 90,000 children orphans. In the wake of the
severe earthquake in 2010, a cholera epidemic also
arose, the origin of which was UN soldiers (see Modern
History). The cholera epidemic also regained momentum
after Hurricane Matthew in the fall of 2016. Nearly one
million people are estimated to have been infected with
cholera since the outbreak of the epidemic and more than
10,000 have died in the disease. The Zika virus has also
taken root in Haiti.
For state and private employees there is a defective
social insurance system, and at least on the paper, farm
workers have accident insurance. The social
contributions made by NGOs are of greater importance.
After all, a first assessment of the country's
poverty after the earthquake disaster showed little
signs of a clearing. In the report presented by the
World Bank and the Haitian organization Onpes at the end
of 2014, extreme poverty was reported to have dropped
from 31 to 24 percent between 2000 and 2012, mainly due
to better education. In addition, the report points to
better paid jobs in the construction, transport and
telecommunications sectors, especially in
Port-au-Prince, as well as foreign aid and money
shipments from Haitians abroad. But close to 60 percent
of residents were below the national poverty line of US
$ 2.44 per day in 2016, while almost a quarter were
below the extreme poverty threshold of US $ 1.24 a day.
The devastation after the 2010 earthquake also led to
an extensive wave of refugees within Haiti. At most
there were 1.5 million internally displaced persons, at
the beginning of 2018, almost 40,000 remained.
After the 2010 earthquake, children's vulnerability
became the focus. Thousands of children became orphans
or moved away from their families and were in urgent
need of both medical help and psychological support.
There were also reports, partly possibly based on
rumors, of how children were adopted to other countries
without proper judicial review.
But already in the past, the children's situation in
Haiti was difficult and several hundred thousand
children are estimated to have been used for housework
under almost slave-like conditions. Not infrequently,
they have been subjected to both physical abuse and
sexual abuse. Children who are thrown out or escaped
from households where they have been housed make up a
large proportion of street children who usually end up
in prostitution or crime.
Thousands of adult Haitians also fall victim to human
trafficking, usually following promises to get good jobs
or study places in other countries.
Homosexuality has been allowed by law since 1986 for
people over the age of 18, but the tolerance among the
public is small and most LGBTQ people are believed to
maintain a low profile of fear of harassment.
Haiti is one of a handful of countries in the world
where abortion is totally prohibited, even if the
mother's life or health is at stake.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
50 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
2.0 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
1.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.5 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
64.2 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
34.7 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
6.9 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 38 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
3 percent (2018)
The Senate replaces the head of government
Prime Minister Pierre-Louis is dismissed by the Senate who believes she has
not done enough to rebuild the country's economy. Jean-Max Bellerive is
appointed as successor.
Haiti receives debt relief
The World Bank and the IMF donate 1.2 billion of Haiti's debt, or 80 percent
of the total debt. The country is considered to have met the conditions for
economic reform and poverty reduction.
Senate elections are completed
The election that applies to one-third of the Senate's seats takes place
between April and June, after being postponed since November 2008. Only eleven
percent of voters participate, and unrest erupts. Most Senator seats receive the
Lespwa government party, which after the election changes its name to Inite.
Bill Clinton becomes UN envoy
Former US President Bill Clinton is named UN Special Envoy for Haiti.
Fanmi Lavala is disqualified in Senate elections
The electoral authority disqualifies all candidates from the ousted President
Jean-Bertrand Aristide's Fanmi Lavalas party before an election involving parts
of the Senate. The reason is that Fanmi Lavalas has split and handed in rival
ballots and it is unclear which faction is the legitimate one.