Since the turn of the millennium, Kazakhstan
has experienced an improvement in living standards and
human development. The proportion of poor Kazakhs is now
only a couple, three percent. However, the
socio-economic differences are large between cities such
as Almaty and Nursultan (formerly Astana) and the
The difference in life expectancy is large between
men and women. One reason is high alcohol and tobacco
consumption among men. Maternal and child mortality is
also relatively high.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Kazakhstan, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
Health care is neglected. There is a shortage of
healthcare personnel, medicines and medical equipment.
The healthcare sector is still suffering from the fact
that many doctors and other highly educated people left
the country during the economic crisis of the 1990s.
Formally, health care is free of charge, but those who
can pay for themselves get past queues more easily and
can receive better and faster care.
A state pension fund, as well as a system of social
insurance, exists. Virtually all residents have access
to clean water and functioning sewers.
Poverty is more prevalent among ethnic Kazakhs than
among Russians. The Kazakhs live to a greater extent in
the poor countryside of the south, while the Russians
dominate the industrialized northern part of the
country. The gaps are large between rich and poor, and
between city and countryside.
Extensive environmental problems such as industrial
pollution, land degradation and radiation from nuclear
weapons test blasts (see Natural Resources, Energy and
the Environment) also pose health risks.
Ancestry and kinship are important. The Kazakhs are
divided into three "hordes", which according to the myth
originate from three brothers. The hordes in turn are
divided into clans and large families. The lineage used
to decide which pastures a kazak was allowed to use, and
even today the hordeship has some significance for how
kazaks relate to each other. Arranged marriages occur.
Family life is patriarchically structured: the father
is responsible for the family and is the one who governs
and governs. Society is also clearly hierarchical: the
oldest or highest ranking person is expected to be the
one who makes the decision on everyone's behalf.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
9 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.2 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
91.1 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
97.9 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
3.9 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
$ 262 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
27 percent (2018)
Independent magazine closes
A court orders that the independent magazine Adam bol be closed. The magazine
is accused of violating the law prohibiting propaganda for a violent regime
change. Adam Bol has engaged in critical scrutiny of human rights issues and
Cooperation agreement with the EU
After three and a half years of negotiations, Kazakhstan concludes an
agreement on closer economic and political cooperation with the EU. The EU
agreement is expected to enter into force in 2015.
Kazakhstan cares about independence
President Nazarbayev says that Kazakhstan could very well leave the Eurasian
Economic Union (EEU) if membership threatens the country's independence. He
makes his comment after Russian President Putin said that Nazarbayev "managed to
create a state in an area that has never been its own state".
The government is losing weight
President Nazarbayev announces that the number of ministries should be
reduced from 17 to 12 to streamline the government's work.
Tightening laws should prevent terrorism
President Nazarbayev signs a new law that means that more kinds of crimes
than before can result in the death penalty, that expressions of separatism
become illegal and that it becomes criminal to be a member of unregistered
religious and social organizations. The reason for the stricter law is that the
fight against terror must be stepped up.
Tighter ex-Soviet economic cooperation
Kazakhstan, together with Russia and Belarus, concludes an agreement to
create the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). The agreement is signed in Astana and
aims to create a common market and to facilitate economic integration between
the three former Soviet states.
President's daughters receive high positions
President Nazarbayev's eldest daughter Darigha Nazarbayeva is elected Deputy
Speaker of Parliament's House of Commons. She also becomes a group leader for
the dominant party of the Fatherland Light (Nur Otan).
New old head of government
Prime Minister Serik Achmetov and his entire government resign. No cause is
stated, but President Nazarbayev gives former Prime Minister Kärim Mäsimov the
task of leading a new government.
Newly launched independent newspaper closes
One of the country's few independent newspapers, the Pravdivaja Gazeta, is
closed by a court just nine months after it was launched. During the nine
months, the magazine has been charged twice with a three-month publishing ban
and twice sentenced to high fines.
The currency is devalued
The central bank gives up attempts to keep the exchange rate on its own
currency, tenge, and it is devalued by 19 percent (see Finance).