About seven out of ten Madagascans live in
poverty, according to the World Bank. Social insurance
systems exist only for the small proportion of the
population who are employed. For the vast majority of
Madagascans, the genus is the most important social
Social conditions were drastically worsened by
international financial sanctions against the country
between the 2009 and 2014 coups. The poorest urban poor
were affected, although it is in rural areas that most
of the poor are present. The second half of the 2010s
became more politically stable, which made many
Madagascans get a little better again.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Madagascar, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
For the formal employees there are rules on minimum
wage, pension, work injury compensation and parental
leave. However, compensation levels are low. Those in
the informal sector are completely excluded from these
social systems, as are all farmers in the countryside
who grow for their own use.
Health care is basically free of charge, but in order
to receive care and medicine, the Malagasy must wait a
long time, sometimes several months. During the crisis
years, the state spent only a percentage of the budget
on health care, but that proportion has subsequently
increased. There are private hospitals and clinics, and
those who can afford can buy better health care even at
the state hospitals.
Malaria, cholera and tuberculosis are serious health
problems and bullying has occasionally erupted in the
cities. Many Madagascans suffer from chronic
malnutrition. However, according to statistics from the
UN agency Unaids, Madagascar has fared better from HIV
and AIDS than many other African countries. About half
the population has access to clean drinking water and a
tenth to functioning sewage.
The crime rate is high. This applies not least to
livestock theft by armed leagues.
Women have a traditionally freer position in
Madagascar than in many African mainland countries.
About half of the women work outside the home, and more
women have managerial positions in public administration
and business than in neighboring countries. At the same
time, women are discriminated against and have less
chances of getting a job in the public sector than men.
Women have a legal right to inherit and to be able to
own land, but this right is not always respected.
Although trafficking is prohibited, trafficking in women
and children occurs for prostitution.
Abortion is illegal and can be punished with
imprisonment. Abortion is not permitted even in the case
of rape. However, it is unusual for women to be
convicted of having an abortion. In 2017, Parliament
voted down a proposal to decriminalize the operation.
A law against child labor (with a 15-year limit) was
introduced in 2007 but is not complied with in practice.
Instead, during the crisis years between 2009 and 2014,
the number of child laborers increased. Many of them are
forced to contribute to the family's livelihood, not
least through heavy and dangerous work. Most of these
children thus lose their schooling, in whole or in part.
Many are forced to work in fishing, within the heavy and
health-threatening stone industry or as domestic
servants. Most children in public schools in the larger
cities are reported to work before or after school.
Homosexuality is not illegal but discrimination
against sexual minorities is common and not punished.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
38 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.3 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.2 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
50.6 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
10.5 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
5.2 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
$ 24 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
19 percent (2018)