According to the UN agency UNDP, Mali is
among the world's ten least developed countries.
Malnutrition and inadequate health care contribute to
low life expectancy. The hygienic conditions are poor,
which causes diseases such as malaria, cholera,
tuberculosis and various gastrointestinal disorders to
Half of Mali's population lives in poverty (that is,
less than $ 1.9 a day) according to the UN agency UNDP.
If one also takes into account factors such as health,
living standards and education, eight out of ten
residents are poor according to UNDP.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Mali, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
Less than half of the population is estimated to have
access to basic health care within a reasonable distance
from home. The lack of care is particularly great in
In the 2000s, the state began to invest more money in
health care, including vaccination campaigns and
measures to prevent the spread of AIDS. The proportion
of HIV-infected males is low compared to the spread of
the AIDS virus in southern Africa.
The armed conflict that has plagued Mali since 2012
(see Current Policy) has resulted in increased suffering
and deteriorated social living conditions for a large
part of the population. Access to food, clean water,
medicines and education has decreased. Millions of
people are in need of humanitarian food aid. In April
2020, the United Nations food program WFP described the
situation as "extremely worrying" when the country was
also hit by the corona pandemic.
The small group of males who have a formal employment
is covered by a system that covers the most basic social
insurance. For the rest of the population, there is no
social safety net at all beside the family.
Traditionally, Mali has been a strict class society
where slaves were at the bottom of the social ladder.
Although slavery still exists today, this class divide
is about to be loosened up and social mobility is
increasing. Many ethnic groups are divided into clans,
which consist of several households that hold together
under a respected older male clan leader.
Most males live in self-catering homes in a small
village in the countryside, usually in the southern
countryside, and feed on simple farming. For the vast
majority, the extended family is the hub of their lives.
Most often, the extended family lives in a tight group
It is allowed for a man to have up to four wives, and
it is not uncommon for at least two. The wives usually
have separate homes near each other and often share in
the housework. The husband either has his own house
where the wives come or he moves between the wives'
In the cities, some people now live in nuclear
families instead of in large families. Most often these
are highly educated couples with a Western influenced
Seasonal workers and guest workers abroad generally
maintain good contact with their family in the home
country and usually send home money to their relatives
The situation of women
Discrimination against women is prohibited by law,
but is still common. Women generally have a lower level
of education than men, and are poorly represented in
politics and business. Abuse and abuse of women is not
uncommon. Almost all women have been subjected to
genital mutilation, which is not prohibited by law.
However, the state is campaigning against the
intervention. Women in the law have the same right to
inherit as men, but in practice the daughters are often
discriminated against at the time of inheritance. On
average, a Malian woman is 16 when she marries. Arranged
marriages occur, especially in rural areas.
After major popular protests, the then President
Touré in 2009 chose not to sign a new law passed by
Parliament aimed at strengthening women's rights. The
bill had been harshly criticized by Muslim groups who
considered it to be Islamic and forced by Western
countries. It was returned to Parliament for a review,
which led to a complete reversal. The new Family Law
that the President finally signed in January 2012 states
that the husband is the head of the family, that a wife
must obey her husband and that girls have the legal
right to marry at the age of 16. Among others, the
International Human Rights Federation (FIDH) described
the law as "the exact opposite of the principle of
equality and non-discrimination".
Child rearing is to a large extent the responsibility
of the village collective, almost as much as that of the
parents. Up to the age of 2-3, children are often given
an easy education and are rarely punished.
Many Malian children are forced to work even though
child labor is prohibited. The children work primarily
in agriculture and in homes. Trafficking in children
occurs, especially for work on plantations, but also in
the homes and mining industry. Thousands of children
were sold during the 2000s to plantations in Ivory
Coast. The children are tricked away from their families
with promises of wage labor but are instead bought by
plantation owners, who force them to work under
slave-like conditions. Even more children are forced to
work in households in neighboring countries. Mali has
tightened the legislation against child trafficking with
a sentence of up to 20 years in prison.
The armed conflict in the 2010s has hit the children
hard. In April 2020, the UN Children's Fund published a
report showing that hundreds of children were killed,
mutilated or separated from their parents in 2019 alone.
The situation of LGBT people
Mali's laws and customary law do not explicitly
prohibit homosexual, bi or trans sexuality, but in
society, conservative attitudes towards LGBT people are
widespread and homosexuality is almost taboo.
Prejudice and discrimination make it extremely
difficult to live as openly gay. There are no laws that
prohibit hate crimes or discrimination. It is not
allowed to form organizations that work to strengthen
the rights and protections of LGBT people. It is
forbidden for gay couples to adopt children.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
62 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
1.4 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
1.0 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.4 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
74.3 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
39.3 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
5.8 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 30 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
9 percent (2018)