In 2014, more than a tenth of the Moldovan
population lived below the national poverty line.
Although most residents now have housing and enough
food, living conditions are difficult. There is a lack
of fuel in winter time to heat the homes with.
The residents of the capital Chișinău generally have
something better than rural people. Nearly eight out of
ten poor Moldavans are rural residents. The rural
population manages to grow their own food. Many city
dwellers also have their own lots.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Moldova, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
The general state of health of the population is
poor, and epidemics of cholera and diphtheria have
erupted on several occasions. The average life
expectancy for both women and men is among the lowest in
Health care has shortcomings, especially in rural
areas. There are not enough medicines and medical
equipment. Many medical professionals have chosen to
work abroad because of low wages in Moldova. Anyone with
money can buy care. Corruption and bribery are grazing.
A health insurance system has been in place since
2004 to be financed by the state, employers and
employees, but public funds for this are lacking. The
social insurance system makes contributions to families
with low income, pensioners, the disabled and the
unemployed. In 2016, Parliament passed a law to
gradually increase the retirement age, from 57 years for
women and 62 years for men to 63 years for both sexes,
Trafficking in women and girls is a serious problem.
The trade is run by both Moldavian and international
leagues that sell the women for prostitution abroad.
Poverty and high unemployment in rural areas are the
Women are underrepresented in politics and in higher
positions in government and business. According to the
law, men and women should bear the same responsibility
for the children, but only mothers can receive
compensation for parental leave.
Thousands at orphanages
The law provides for relatively strong protection for
children and there is a child ombudsman to ensure that
children's rights are guaranteed. In practice, the laws
are poorly complied with and childcare is accepted both
at home and at school. Thousands of children live in
state orphanages, where the standard is low and living
conditions are often harsh.
The country's estimated 50,000–200,000 Roma usually
live in great poverty and segregated from the rest of
Gay, bisexual and transsexual as well as queer
persons (LGBT people) are openly discriminated against
in society, including by police and other authorities.
In recent years, the Orthodox Church, as well as
politicians from various camps, have been campaigning
against the rights of LGBTQ people in the form of, for
example, demonstrations and distribution of writings. At
a local level, a ban on "aggressive LGBT propaganda" has
been introduced in several places. There is an
organization working to strengthen the rights of LGBTQ
people and at national level, Parliament adopted in 2012
a law against discrimination which also included LGBTQ
rights. However, the protests against the law became
numerous and strong.
Before the Soviet era (1944–1991), Moldova was a
feudal farmer's society with distinct social classes. At
the top of the hierarchy were the landowners (boys) and
at the bottom of the social ladder were the farm
workers. The landowner class disappeared when Moldova
joined the Soviet Union from 1940. Instead, another
upper class emerged: high-ranking bureaucrats and heads
of large state corporations and funds. During the 1990s
transition to market economy arose a new economic upper
class of young entrepreneurs and former agency managers.
Status symbols for them are foreign cars and fashion
clothes and large newly built villas. From this stratum,
the hope is great for the country's many poor, who often
survive by growing on their own lots or through the help
of relatives in the country. Many have also emigrated,
especially to other former Soviet republics or to Italy.
Daily family life
Both in the countryside and in the cities, it is
almost always the women who bear the responsibility for
household chores and for the well-being of the children.
At the same time, women usually work in family farming.
Men usually have more to say about life outside the
family, while women can have a great influence over
decisions within the household.
It is not uncommon for newlywed couples to stay for a
good while with their groom's parents for financial
reasons before moving into their own home. The youngest
son with family often lives with the parents and
eventually he inherits the parents' home with movable
property. In the law, however, inheritance rights are
the same for all breast heirs.
Infants and young children are taken care of by their
mother with the help of grandmother and grandmother. The
different generations often live close to each other.
Girls are expected to help in the household from a very
early age. In addition, they often look after their
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
14 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.6 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
86.7 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
76.3 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
10.2 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 171 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
23 percent (2018)
Most of the passenger and freight traffic in
Moldova is via roads and railways. The standard of both
roads and railways is generally low. Bus traffic is well
developed, but the vehicles are old and environmentally
The Prut and Dnestr rivers are used as transport
routes. The total waterways cover 42 km. The main ports
are Tighina (Bender), RÓbnița and Ungeni.
Air Moldova, whose main owner is the state, has
received competition from privately owned smaller
airlines. Chișinău has an international airport.
President Voronin is re-elected
The new parliament elects the communist leader Vladimir Voronin as president
for a new four-year term.
Communist electoral victory
The Communist Party wins the parliamentary elections with 56 out of 101 seats
against 34 seats for the Democratic Moldova Electoral Union, which is comprised
of the three middle-right parties Our Moldovan Alliance, the Social Liberal
Party and Moldova's Democratic Party. The remaining 11 seats go to the strongly
nationalist Christian Democratic People's Party.