More than a quarter of the population lives
in poverty, according to the World Bank, but the number
of poor has decreased in recent years.
The economic difficulties in Mongolia after the fall
of communism in 1990 led to widespread social problems
and poorer health among the residents. When the state
reduced its funding for health care, rural villagers
were particularly affected.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Mongolia, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
During the first decade of the 21st century,
healthcare received more money, including investments in
preventative care. Between 2009 and 2012, state and
private grants for health care doubled.
The proportion of children suffering from chronic
malnutrition has decreased sharply and infant mortality
has also decreased.
State care is free of charge, but quality is not
always the best. In practice, patients have to buy their
own medicines and take them to the hospital. There are
some outpatient clinics that provide free treatment. In
recent years, private health clinics have also emerged.
The social security system has been eroded after the
fall of communism. The law does guarantee pension,
unemployment benefits and more, but the amounts paid are
Violence against women is a serious problem. A law
against domestic violence was introduced in 2004.
At the last election in 2012, women gained increased
representation in politics. The proportion of female
members of Parliament increased from 4 to 15 percent.
Despite the fact that the majority of the residents
today live in the cities, the country is strongly
characterized by the old traditions and structures of
nomad life. Historically, nomadic society was divided
into hierarchies of families, clans and clan
associations at higher levels. The population consisted
of classes such as nobility, shepherds, craftsmen and
The hierarchies and class divisions, with large
income gaps, were partially erased during the communist
era of 1924. When democracy and the market economy were
introduced in 1990, the economic and social gaps widened
Among the nomad population, it is still common for
two to seven family households, consisting of several
generations, to live together in camps called chot ajl
(a group of tents). Four to twenty chot ajl together
form a neg mutgiinhan (people from one place) who
distribute the work between themselves and constantly
move across the steppe together.
In traditional Mongolian nomadic life, the women
managed the home, cooked and raised the children. The
men hunted and took care of the animals, the trade and
the crafts. Historically, the youngest son inherited the
majority of the parents' animals. Today, gender roles
and inheritance rights depend less on traditions and
more on each family's standard of living and the impact
of a more modern society with influences from the
The old tradition of arranged weddings is basically
extinct. Today, young Mongols choose for themselves who
they want to marry. Similarly, the norm with a large
family with several children is less common today,
although children are highly valued by tradition. Child
rearing is taken care of by the whole family. Although
more and more children attend school, it is generally
easier for girls to complete compulsory basic education.
Among nomads and the poorer population of the city, boys
are still considered more useful at home.
The information on the situation of sexual minorities
is insufficient. Police harassment occurs and some law
clauses can be used against, for example, gays. There
are a couple of organizations that defend sexual
minorities. In 2013, the first pride festival in the
country's history was organized.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
14 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
83.2 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
58.5 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
3.9 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 141 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
17 percent (2018)