The social gaps and income gaps are very
large in Peru. More than one in five residents are
estimated to live in poverty. There are major
differences between the city and the countryside. The
proportion of poor people is the largest in the Andes.
Poverty has declined sharply since the turn of the
millennium. The proportion of the population that was
considered poor was halved in ten years until 2017, when
it increased again a snap. During the same period, the
proportion considered extremely poor has decreased from
11 to just under 4 percent of the population. The
indigenous peoples are over-represented among the poor.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Peru, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
There are major shortcomings in the healthcare sector
and this is particularly noticeable in the countryside
as doctors and health care facilities are concentrated
in Lima and other major cities. The most common diseases
are respiratory tract infections, stomach ailments,
malaria and tuberculosis.
There is a state social insurance system, funded by
employers, employees and the state, but it mainly covers
those who have a formal employment. A general health
insurance is being created.
A large part of the social activity is run by
non-profit organizations. There are many grassroots
organizations that run soup kitchens, nursing homes, day
care centers and more.
The daily life of the different social classes
differs greatly, although some boundaries have become
more unclear as parts of the highland's Native American
population have moved to the cities for a long period of
years. There, with time, some people began to speak
Spanish and in other ways changed their lifestyle so
that they could not always be distinguished from the
large group of masters (see Population and languages).
The origin of the fertilizers is usually
Native-European, but they may also have African or
The dominant class markers are skin color and
appearance, but also body length, behavior, dress,
language and educational level. Peruvians of European
origin are thus a finite elite while the harshest
discrimination is directed at the black minority. The
Andean and Amazon Indians, as well as to some extent the
Asians, are also met by condescending attitudes.
In recent years, some changes have taken place,
partly due to new laws against racial discrimination.
Bars and nightclubs have been fined since they refused
to let in the dark-skinned, and in 2001 the country got
its first president from the indigenous people,
The typical household consists of five people; thus a
nuclear family. In most families, the often
authoritarian father has the highest status even though
it is the woman who makes many of the decisions in the
household. However, this old patriarchal pattern has
weakened: partly because so many men in the countryside
spend long periods of work in the cities, and partly
because social problems in the townships have caused a
lot of women and children to be abandoned by the man.
Among the Quechua Indians there is yet another family
tradition believed to have roots in the Inca people. In
the extended family, the wife and children are counted
only as the father's family, while the wife's parents
and other relatives do not formally belong to the
community. This has caused disputes because the laws of
the country require that a person's full name consists
of both the husband's and the woman's family name.
Most parents, especially among the masters, attach
great importance to the schooling of the children as
higher education gives higher status. Similarly, many
want sons and daughters to marry someone with brighter
skin - even if young people decide. Many young couples
live a time spent together, sometimes in a parent's
home, until they or the family can afford marriage, a
wedding party and a new home.
The children are taught early to respect the elderly,
to obey and work hard. Poverty and low social status
increase the risk of children being exposed to
discrimination, violence and sexual abuse. Men and women
have the same inheritance right, but sometimes the woman
has to act decisively or take legal advice to avoid
being disadvantaged. Even otherwise, the gender has
formally the same rights, which is at least noticed by
the urban population.
Both upper and middle class household help is common.
The more well-off have service staff and sometimes more
than one home. It may be a holiday home, but it also
happens that men have an extra home for a mistress and
also common children. Divorce and remarriage are legal,
but the negative view of the Catholic Church on this may
have affected some of these men's behavior. Abortion is
prohibited unless the woman's life is in danger.
Discrimination due to sexual orientation is
prohibited but still common. Marriage only occurs
between man and woman. However, according to a 2018
ruling in the human rights court that belongs to the
regional organization OAS, same-sex marriage must be
approved by all countries that have signed an American
human rights convention.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
11 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.3 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
89.9 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
74.3 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
5.3 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 316 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
28 percent (2018)
The government is replaced
Prime Minister Salomón Lerner submits his resignation, which means that the
entire government must resign. Lerner gives no reason, but his departure is
linked to the ongoing battle over the Conga mining complex in northern Peru (see
November 2011). Lerner has tried to mediate in the conflict. Lerner is replaced
by Minister of the Interior Óscar Valdés, who is installing a new government a
day later. Ten of the nineteen ministers are new to their posts. More
technocrats are hired while people with left profiles are allowed to leave their
State of emergency after protests
A two-month long state of emergency is introduced in the Cajamarca region of
northern Peru after several protesters protesting against plans to build a
planned mine were injured in clashes with police. The protesters claim that the
mine, Conga, will destroy the groundwater reserves in the area. The unrest is
causing the American company building the mine to temporarily stop work.
Police officers are allowed to go into corruption cleansing
President Humala dismisses 30 of the 45 highest police chiefs in the country
in a sudden campaign against police corruption. Shortly thereafter, Humala's
vice president, Omar Chehade, is at the center of a scandal when a newspaper
reports that he has tried to bribe one of the deposed police chiefs to help a
company take an illegal action to take over a sugar plantation. Humala withdraws
from Chehade who refuses to resign but who later gets separated from his post.
State of emergency in five provinces
The state of emergency applies in Marañó, Huamalies, Leoncio Prado, Tocache
and Padre Abad in northeastern Peru. The reason is to try to cope with guerrilla
operations and illegal drug dealing in the area.
New law gives indigenous people influence
President Humala signs a law that gives indigenous people (Indians) the right
to have a say in the team in connection with the exploitation of their
traditional lands. The law means that companies must seek to agree with local
residents regarding projects that affect the landscape. However, residents do
not have the right to veto. Former President García vetoed the law, which he
felt would constitute a barrier to investment. However, an application of the
law will be delayed. An ape is that there are no guidelines as to what
requirements an organization must meet to be considered a "union of indigenous
New government takes office
In Parliament, 90 members support their declaration of government presented
by Chief Minister Salomón Lerner Ghitis. A few days later, Finance Minister Luis
Miguel Castilla presents parts of the upcoming budget with major investments in
social programs, education and health care. At the same time, a reserve is saved
if the world economy deteriorates. The government gets the thumbs up from the
credit rating agency Standard and Poor's, which raises Peru's credit rating one
Humala takes over
Ollanta Humala is sworn in as President of Peru, promising to end poverty and
social exclusion. At the same time, he wants to maintain the free market
New regional free trade block
Peru forms a new free trade bloc, the Pacific Alliance (Pacific Alliance),
together with Chile, Colombia and Mexico.
Humala wins the presidential election
Former Army officer Ollanta Humala wins in the decisive round with 51.5
percent of the vote. Humala has lagged in opinion polls but towards the end
received important support, including from former president Alejandro Toledo,
who was eliminated in the first round. When Humala's victory is complete, the
stock market falls by over 12 percent, the largest case recorded on a single
day. However, it recovers the next day.
Substantial expansion of hydropower
The government decides to build 20 hydroelectric power plants on the Marañón
River in northern Peru over a 15-year period. The investment will secure the
country's electricity supply for 40 years and make the country the region's
largest exporter of renewable energy, according to President García.
Left success in elections
The first round of the presidential election results in the left candidate
Ollanta Humala and the right candidate, Alberto Fujimori's daughter Keiko,
moving on to round two, in June. Humala is supported by 32 percent of voters and
Fujimori by 24 percent. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, who is running for the Alliance
Center for Big Change candidate, gets 19 percent and ex-president Alejandro
Toledo 16 percent. In the parliamentary elections, Humala's Gana Perú will be
the largest with 47 out of 130 seats, followed by Fujimori's Party Strength in
2011 with 37. Toledo's party A possible Peru gets 21 seats, Alliance for big
change 12, National solidarity 9 and PAP / Apra 4.