Before the 1994 genocide, Rwanda was one of
the world's least developed countries and social
conditions are still poor. Nearly 40 percent of the
population lives below the poverty line. However, since
the turn of the millennium, living conditions have
gradually improved for most Rwandans.
About a quarter of residents do not have access to
clean water and around 40 percent do not have a
functioning sewer system. It is nevertheless a clear
improvement over 2010, when over half of Rwandans lacked
such basic conditions for good hygiene. Conditions are
generally worse in the countryside than in the cities.
Stomach and intestinal diseases, intestinal parasites
and respiratory diseases reap many sacrifices.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Rwanda, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
Nearly one in three residents are malnourished, but
in the early 2000s, only half of the population had
enough to eat. Child mortality is still high, but the
country was able to reduce infant mortality to below
average for sub-Saharan Africa in the 2010s.
Rwanda has been severely affected by HIV / AIDS, but
intensive work on the spread of the HIV virus has
reduced the proportion of infected adults (15-49 years)
to less than 3 percent, from about 13 percent in the
1990s. Access to brake medicines has increased
significantly and is better than in most other African
countries. Special efforts are being made to reduce the
transmission of the virus from infected pregnant women
to their children.
The reconstruction of health care after the 1994
genocide has gone quite a long way. Health care grants
were increased during the 2000s and 2010s, but aid
donors still account for a large portion of health care
costs. Almost all residents now have access to health
care and have health insurance that covers the most
common healthcare needs.
The local health clinics are quite well stocked with
medicines and have laboratories that can do blood and
urine tests. Vaccination programs largely reach the
entire population and are free of charge. Mosquito nets
are also distributed free of charge.
There are still few doctors, but in return, a tens of
thousands of "barefoot nurses" have been trained to
treat common illnesses such as malaria and diarrhea,
vaccinate children, provide advice on family planning
and care for maternal health care in the villages.
The government has a vision and an action plan to
make Rwanda a high-income country by 2050. Slum areas
have been demolished on the outskirts of Kigali as part
of the modernization of the capital. The slum dwellers
have been promised new better housing, but many have
protested that they were not sufficiently compensated in
connection with the move. The modernization has also
meant that street children, beggars and prostitutes have
been placed in collection centers.
The position of women has been strengthened in the
legislation, which is also evident in the administration
and some other areas of society. Rwanda's parliament has
the largest proportion of female members in the world,
largely due to quotas. In everyday life, however, women
are still at a disadvantage, even within local politics.
Violence against women is still very common.
In recent years, laws have been passed on women's
inheritance rights, which have traditionally been very
weak. All property usually goes to the sons. In return,
it is the eldest son's job to provide for the welfare of
the mother and any unmarried sisters' welfare at the
death of the father.
The position of children has also gradually been
strengthened in recent years through a number of laws,
but poverty means that child labor is still widespread.
Sexual violence against children is also considered to
be quite common.
In a country like Rwanda where society and culture
rest on a traditional family formation, the tolerance of
sexual minorities is low, although direct violence
against LGBT persons is relatively rare.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
27 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
2.5 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.9 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.5 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
56.7 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
66.6 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
7.9 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 48 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
61 percent (2018)
Rwandan military is accused of murdering civilian Hutus
In a UN report on the conflicts in Congo-Kinshasa, Rwandan forces are accused
of murdering civilian Hutus. The report's author writes that it could possibly
be classified as genocide.
President Kagame reelected
President Kagame wins the presidential election with 93 percent of the vote.
The opposition, which is basically silent, urges the outside world not to
recognize the election result. Election observers from the Commonwealth express
"concern" over the lack of opposition candidates.
Prominent opposition politicians are murdered
André Kagwa Rwiseerka, prominent member of the Democratic Green Party, is
found murdered. His party is one of several opposition parties that refused to
register for this year's presidential election.
Journalist Jean Léonard Rugambage is shot to death by unknown perpetrators.
Rugambage has been monitoring a case involving a former army chief who has
fallen into disrepute with President Kagame and subsequently moved to South
Africa. There, the commander of the army was subjected to a murder attempt,
which he suggested was behind the regime.
Opposition leader Ingabire is arrested
Opposition leader Victoire Ingabire, who has been on the run, is arrested
after her return to Rwanda, where she will run for office in the presidential
election. Her lawyer is also arrested.
Presidential thinking is apprehended - and released
Agathe Habyarimana, widow of the country's former president, is arrested in
France where she has lived since the genocide. She is suspected of involvement
in the planning of the massacres and has been requested to be extradited by
Rwanda. She is released but is not allowed to leave France and must report
regularly to the police.
President Sarkozy visits Rwanda
French President Nicolas Sarkozy visits Rwanda. He admits that France made a
mistake in the 1994 genocide but does not ask for forgiveness.