According to the United Nations Development
Agency, UNDP, 73 percent of residents lived on less than
$ 1.25 a day in 2012. Rural conditions are particularly
difficult. In Somaliland and Puntland, living conditions
are considered to be somewhat better than in the rest of
Almost all care is funded through voluntary
organizations or Somalis living abroad. Many children
die from diarrheal diseases, malaria and respiratory
tract infections. Diseases such as measles, cholera and
tuberculosis are also common.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Somalia, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
In 2017, in collaboration with the World Health
Organization WHO, vaccination campaigns against measles
and cholera were initiated. About 15,000 suspected cases
of measles were reported between January and August
In 2004, Somalia was free of polio, but new cases of
the disease were reported in 2005-2007. A vaccination
campaign carried out with the help of 10,000 volunteers
led to the eradication of polio, according to the World
Health Organization WHO, in 2008. However, hundreds of
new cases of polio were reported in 2013.
To be eligible for education and other community
service, a child must be registered. Despite this, only
a few percent of all births are recorded.
The starvation disaster 2010–2012 was evident in the
statistics. In 2012, it was estimated that 147 children
out of a thousand died before the age of five, compared
with 109 three years earlier. Nearly one child in ten
dies before the age of one.
As a result of the civil war in Somalia, perhaps
three quarters of the population have left their
settlements at least once (see also Population and
Languages). Most have returned later, or at least found
somewhere to settle down, but some have remained in
collection camps. The camp refugees are often people who
are outside the clan system (like somali bantu) or who
belong to clans without strong militias. In 2018, the UN
estimated that there were about 2.6 million internally
displaced people in the country (see Population and
By the end of 2014, one million people were in need
of relief. Another two million people were in the danger
zone of not getting food for the day. At the same time,
the United Nations had not even received half of the $
933 million needed to help those affected.
Women are discriminated against in a number of areas
and have little political influence. According to the
Provisional Constitution, 30 percent of the seats in
Parliament are to go to women. In the indirect election
held in 2016/2017, the share was 24 percent in both
chambers of parliament, which was still 10 percent more
Women are also discriminated against in inheritance
laws, since daughters inherit only half as much as sons.
Trafficking in children and women is common. Girls
are given away early, especially in rural areas, where
some may be as young as twelve. In areas controlled by
al-Shabaab, it appears that young girls are being forced
to marry combatants.
Almost all women in Somalia and Somaliland are
sexually abused. Until 1991, genital mutilation was
prohibited, but nonetheless occurred. A new ban was
introduced in the Provisional Constitution adopted in
The maternal mortality rate is high, 850 per 100,000
births. Female genital mutilation is considered to be
one of the causes of so many serious infections and
bleeding in connection with childbirth. About a percent
of women are estimated to have access to modern
The war has also turned many women into widows, which
has led to more women than ever before starting to work
in order to support themselves. Among other things, half
of the merchants at the large Bakara market in Mogadishu
Rape is a problem, especially vulnerable women and
children who live in the refugee camps or belong to the
Human trafficking is a problem. Somali men, women and
children are smuggled to Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia and
the Persian Gulf countries, for example, for sexual
exploitation or forced labor.
In the lawless state that the country has been in
since the early 1990s, crime, high and kidnappings and
violent crimes are common. Somaliland and Puntland have
been comparatively calm, but security has also
deteriorated in recent years.
Consumption of the mild narcotic plant khat (qat)
increased sharply during the war. In 2006, when several
Islamic courts banned the use of the drug in their
areas, it led to unrest. Al-Shabaab has also banned all
use of khat.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
77 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
40.0 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
38.3 percent (2017)
Proportion of women in parliament
24 percent (2018)
Many of the roads built in the 1960s and 1970s
have not been maintained and are in poor condition
today. In Somaliland some of the road network has been
refurbished in recent years, especially in Hargeisa
there are quite good roads. Transport within the country
is mainly by bus or trucks.
Roadblocks set up by government forces, clan militia
and al-Shabaab where travelers are often demanded for
money or threatened with violence make it both expensive
and dangerous to travel between different parts of
In 2006, traffic resumed at Mogadishu International
Airport, which had been down for ten years. In 2012,
Turkish Airlines began flying from Istanbul to Mogadishu
twice a week. It was the first international flight to
land in Mogadishu in many years.
The largest ports include Mogadishu, Kismayo and
Merca. In the north, Berbera in Somaliland and Bossasso
in Puntland are the most important ports.
Medical students and several ministers are killed in terror attacks
At least 22 people are killed, including three ministers, in a suicide attack
against a hotel in Mogadishu. Among the victims are two journalists, but most
were medical students who gathered for a degree reception. al-Shabaab is
suspected of the act, but denies any involvement. A few days later, hundreds of
people protest to protest against al-Shabaab.
Islamists threaten with revenge in Uganda and Burundi
al-Shabaab attacks Mogadishu airport. The fire is answered with grenade fire
from the AU forces. At least 20 civilians are killed. The Islamist militia
threatens to be avenged by terrorist attacks in Uganda and Burundi.
New suicide act in Mogadishu
About 20 people, including four assailants, are killed shortly afterwards by
two suicide attacks against the AU forces' location in Mogadishu.
Terrorist suspects are killed in American raids
In the middle of the month, US special forces carry out a helicopter attack
on Barawe, south of Mogadishu, and say four men, including a suspected Islamist
leader, a Yemeni-born Kenya, Saleh Ali Nabhan, have been killed. Nabhan is
charged with involvement in terrorist attacks in Kenya in 1998 and 2002.
At least 30 dead in suicide
A suicide attack in the Hiraan region requires at least 30 lives, including
the death of the security minister.
Grassroots movement intervenes on the government side
The grassroots movement Ahlu Sunna Waljamaca is taking up arms to defend the
transitional government against militant Islamists. This has happened since the
latter have destroyed the tombs of Sufic leaders. After that, new fierce battles
erupt in the middle part of the country.
The battles are escalating
The violence is escalating further and from May 8 to May 25, about 60,000
people are estimated to have fled Mogadishu and up to 200 civilians have been
Crack occurs between Islamist groups
Islamist leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys returns to Somalia in April after
two years in exile. However, Aweys says no to talks with the president. A crack
is also said to have occurred between al-Shabaab and Hezb al-Islam led by Aweys.
Sharia law is introduced
The Transitional Parliament votes to introduce Muslim law, Sharia, into the
country. The transitional Parliament approves this on 18 April.
At least 11 AU soldiers are killed in suicide bombings
From the end of the month, fighting in the southern part of the country is
increasing, including at least 11 Burundian soldiers killed in a suicide attack
in Mogadishu. It is the fourth suicide attack directed at the AU force.
New President of Puntland
Abdirahman Mohamed Faroole, banker and former finance minister, is elected
Puntland's president for the next four years.
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed is elected president
At the end of the month, the new transition parliament elects moderate
Islamist Sharif Sheikh Ahmed as new president. Later, former diplomat Omar
Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke is appointed new prime minister for a national unity
government. The new government consists of both Islamists and secular
nationalists, former warlords and Somalis who have returned from exile.
Ethiopian military leaves Somalia
Ethiopian troops leave their sites in Mogadishu. They are occupied by
Islamist groups. Government-loyal forces control only two locations in the
metropolitan area. The last Ethiopian forces leave from Somalia on January 25.