The civil war in Sudan has displaced millions
of people both within the country and abroad. The war,
together with periods of drought, has occasionally
caused famine or widespread famine. At the same time,
many quieter Sudanese in quieter parts of the country
have seen improvements in their living standards,
especially after the turn of the millennium when oil
recovery provided the state with large incomes. In the
2010s, however, an economic crisis forced many people
back into poverty.
In round numbers, at least two-thirds of the
population lives below the national poverty line,
according to the country's finance minister in 2019. The
country lacks a well-functioning welfare system and
people must therefore rely on the family and the family
for their social security.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Sudan, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
In most places, there is a shortage of health care
clinics, healthcare professionals, clean drinking water
and functioning sewers. The shortage has worsened during
the economic downturn in recent years. It causes
diseases to spread, especially infections and
gastrointestinal diseases, but also malaria and
jaundice. The proportion of AIDS-sick residents is low,
despite the HIV virus being reported to spread rapidly
during the fighting in the south.
The constitutional declaration that replaced the
country's constitution in 2019 guarantees free maternal
and child health care, but this is not yet complied
Women are discriminated against
In the north, the position of women deteriorated
during the 1990s when Muslim Sharia law was introduced.
Throughout Sudan there are arranged marriages, and many
girls have children at very young years. Abortion is
only allowed if the woman's life is in danger or if she
has become pregnant through rape or incest.
Nine out of ten Sudanese women are sexually abused
according to the UN, although the intervention is now
banned. The most radical form, the pharaonic
circumcision, is common. In Darfur and other areas of
war, rape has been part of the war. Other forms of
violence against women are also common.
Female genital mutilation was criminalized in May
2020 by the transitional government. Anyone who still
performs the procedure risks being sentenced to three
years in prison and a fine.
Slavery and human trafficking
Many children are forced to work for the family's
livelihood. During the civil war in the south, both the
army and the guerrillas SPLM / SPLA recruited minors to
war service, and the same problem then returned in
Trafficking in human beings occurs. An old phenomenon
brought to life by the civil war between northern and
southern Sudan was slavery. After Islamists in Khartoum
in the late 1980s declared war in the south for jihad,
holy war, Arab militiamen, Murahalin, began to bring
home black prisoners of war. Most women and children
were captured. About 11,000 people were taken as slaves
in the war in southern Sudan. It is unclear how many of
them still remain in slavery. In Darfur, slave hunting
has been less common since everyone there is Muslim and
does not like to take other Muslims as slaves.
Homosexual relationships can lead to whipping and, in
some circumstances, death penalty. The intolerance to
LGBTQ people is generally widespread in society.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
42 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.2 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean water
58.9 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to toilets
36.6 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a percentage of
6.3 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 152 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
31 percent (2018)
Struggles in the southeast
In the Blue Nile state, located in the southeastern corner of the country,
the elected governor, representing the northern branch of the SPLM, is
dismissed. SPLM-North takes up arms against the government. Military rule is
introduced and SPLM-North is declared illegal.
Financial crisis measures
Sudan introduces a new currency, new Sudanese pound. The division of the
country leads to a large drop in oil revenues and causes economic crisis
South Sudan declares itself independently
President al-Bashir participates in the celebration of the new capital of
Juba, and despite past threats, Sudan is one of the first states to recognize
South Sudan diplomatically.
Mass escape from South Kurdufan
According to the UN, at least 60,000 civilians are being evacuated from the
government army, which is accused of gross persecution by the black Nuba
Armistice in Abyei
The parties agree on a ceasefire and on asking Ethiopia to send peacekeepers
Struggles for elections in South Kurdufan
The conflict-ridden state of South Kurdufan's controversial governor Ahmed
Haroun is re-elected. He is accused by the ICC of war crimes in Darfur. The
election leads to violence between the government army and armed allies
belonging to the northern branch of the SPLM.
Nord enters Abyei
Army units from the north enter the border area and drive out the south side
troops. A large number of civilians flee south.
Threats from al-Bashir
The president threatens not to recognize the future South Sudan if it claims
Increased troop presence in Abyei
New battles lead to increased tensions in the disputed, oil-rich Abyei border
district. Both the north and south sides are reported to increase their troop
presence in the area.
Residents of the larger cities, mostly students, try to protest against the
government of Khartoum following a model of the so-called Arab Spring in Tunisia
and Egypt. However, the demonstrations are resolutely stopped by police and
South Sudan votes for division
More than 80 percent of those entitled to vote participate in the referendum
on the future status of southern Sudan. Almost 99 percent of them say yes to