The vast majority of Tanzanians live in poor
conditions in rural areas and rely on what their small
crops have to offer. However, hunger does not usually
prevail. The family and the village community are the
most important social protection networks in Tanzania.
Rural residents are usually poorer than urban
residents. However, congestion, poor hygienic conditions
and high crime are challenges that the big city slum
dwellers have to contend with.
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Tanzania, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
People with formal employment are offered pensions,
survivors' protection, maternity benefits and accident
and disability insurance by the state. However,
compensation levels are low. Only wage earners and
employers are automatically connected to the state
The government's ambition was previously free health
care for all, but doctors' visits are now fee-based and
there is a shortage of medicines. Both mission
healthcare and traditional medicine help fill the big
gaps in state healthcare.
Tanzania is at the bottom of the UN agency UNDP's
index of human development in the countries of the
world. The life expectancy is low for the Tanzanians. A
common cause of death is AIDS. The region around Lake
Victoria and Lake Tanganyika has long been one of the
centers of the AIDS epidemic in Africa, but the
proportion of HIV infected in Tanzania has dropped to
4.5 percent in the 15-49 age group. In Zanzibar, the
figure is significantly lower. Tanzania has been
fighting the AIDS epidemic in collaboration with the UN
and is offering brake medication to, among others,
HIV-infected pregnant women.
Over ten million Tanzanians die from malaria every
year, and about 70,000 die, most pregnant women and
children under five. Medication of infants has reduced
the number of malaria cases. Tuberculosis (TB), amoebic
dysentery and diphtheria are also common diseases.
Infant mortality has dropped significantly since the
turn of the millennium and is now lower than in most
other countries at Tanzania's development level.
Village and family life
The relationships within the family determine the
rights and obligations of the individual. What this
means varies between the many ethnic groups. Almost all
groups distinguish between kinship through the father
and through the mother. The vast majority attach greater
importance to the father line than the mother line.
Exceptions are some groups in southeastern Tanzania,
such as makonde and yao.
Society is male dominated with a subordinate position
for women. Outside of the villages, it is common for
women to both work in the fields and take care of the
family, while political life is dominated by men. The
constitution's ban on discrimination against women is
lifted by respecting traditional Muslim law (Sharia).
For example, women's right to land and inheritance is
abolished in villages where Islamic law is applied.
Polygamy and bride price occur. Some ethnic groups apply
female genital mutilation. Many women have been murdered
in brutal forms since being accused of witchcraft.
In 2019, the age limit for marriage for girls was
increased from 15 years to 18 years. Already in 2016,
the country's highest court had ruled that child
marriage for girls was sex discrimination since the age
limit for men was already 18 years old. The state
appealed against the verdict but the appeal was
rejected. Two out of five Tanzanian girls get married
before the age of 18, according to official statistics.
As a result, many girls miss out on education and risk
being subjected to violence and sexual abuse.
In Tanzania, it is common for teenage girls who
become pregnant to be forced to quit school, a practice
supported by the Magufuli government. According to the
UN, 27 percent of all Tanzanian girls aged 15 to 19 are
pregnant, mainly because of widespread sexual violence
and poverty, which forces the girls to sex for food,
school fees or roof overhead. About 5,500 pregnant girls
in Tanzania drop out of school each year, according to
the World Bank.
It is estimated that there are over three million
orphans in Tanzania. Many of them run the risk of ending
up in prostitution or child labor.
Sexual intercourse between men is prohibited and can
be punished with life imprisonment. The general attitude
towards LGBTQ people is hostile or negative and they are
usually forced to conceal their sexual orientation.
The situation of LGBT people
Under President Magufuli from 2015, Tanzania has
become increasingly intolerant of LGBTQ rights issues.
The President has threatened to deregister organizations
working to strengthen the rights of LGBT people and
arrest anyone who participates in campaigns for this
purpose. Foreign citizens working for increased LGBTQ
rights should be expelled.
READ TIP - read more about Tanzania
in UI's web magazine Foreign
magazine : Money in hand can help poor
people break vicious circle (2019-02-06)
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
38 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
4.6 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
2.2 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
1.2 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
50.1 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
29.9 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
6.1 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
$ 35 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
37 percent (2018)
CUF blows boycott
The opposition party CUF cancels its boycott of Zanzibar's parliament (see
CCM wins big in local elections
CCM wins a landslide victory in the local elections. According to official
data, the government party gets 93.7 percent of the vote.