The social standard is relatively good in
Vietnam, compared to other poor countries. Maternal and
child mortality is relatively low, and few residents now
suffer from malnutrition. Almost everyone has running
water and electricity in the home.
The proportion of poor Vietnamese has decreased from
over half in the mid-1990s to around a tenth today. The
gaps between the poor and the rich have increased, but
to a lesser extent than in many comparable countries.
The inequality that exists has a distinct geographical
and ethnic character; those who are still living in
great poverty belong largely to minority peoples in the
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Vietnam, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
With small resources, an already functioning
healthcare system was created in the northern part of
the country in the 1950s. There, the authorities mainly
focused on preventive health care. It gave control of
some of the world's most common plagues, such as
intestinal parasites and malaria. In the south, the
health situation was worse.
At the end of the war in 1975, the regime faced
enormous social challenges. In addition to all
illnesses, the war had left invalids, widows and orphans
and - on another level - prostitution, drug abuse and
crime. In connection with the mass escape from the
country in the 1970s (see Modern history) many
doctors disappeared. The deteriorating economy in the
1970s and 1980s undermined the social system and the
general state of health deteriorated. Diseases that were
almost eradicated came back.
After the transition to a market economy, state
subsidies on medicines have been reduced and Vietnamese
now have to pay for almost all healthcare services. The
public hospitals and health centers are worn out. At the
same time, private hospitals and clinics have started to
grow. Only public employees and employees of individual
private companies are insured. War invalids have a
The previously mandatory family planning, which
ceased in 2003, increased the number of abortions and
sterilizations, not infrequently with life-long
complications as a result of women. There is still
pressure to keep the birth rate down.
The woman is, by law, equal to the man in all
respects, which does not prevent conservative attitudes
in society from acting in the opposite direction.
Prostitution is widespread and human smuggling
occurs, both within Vietnam and to other countries in
Homosexuality is legal and is also becoming more
widely accepted. Since 2015, transgender persons who
have undergone a gender change have the legal right to
register their new gender.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
17 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
0.3 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
91.2 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
83.5 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
5.7 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 123 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
27 percent (2018)
Activists are sentenced to prison
Human rights activists Ho Thi Bich Khuong and Nguyen Trung Ton are sentenced
to five and two years in prison, respectively, for "carrying out propaganda"
against the state.
Conflict management agreement with China
China and Vietnam sign an agreement to manage their conflict in the South
China Sea (see Foreign Policy and Defense). Among other things, a "hot line"
should be established between the countries and meetings should be held once
every six months.
Poison remediation begins
The remediation of the military base in Dan Nang begins with US support (see
Elections to the National Assembly are held
Elections to the National Assembly are held.
Violent protests in Dien Bien
Thousands of hmong take part in demonstrations in the province of Dien Bien
in the northwest, demanding increased self-government, strengthened land rights
and religious freedom. There are reports of dozens of deaths when the
authorities turn down the protests.
The Communist Party holds congress
The Communist Party holds its 11th party congress. Nguyen Tan Dung receives
renewed confidence as prime minister. Nguyen Phu Trong, former President of the
National Assembly, is appointed Secretary-General of the Party and Truong Tan
Sang as President. New President becomes Nguyen Sinh Hung.