The rapid urbanization in Zambia since
independence in 1964 has created major problems in the
cities in the form of unemployment, housing shortages
and growing slums. At the same time, the countryside has
lost important labor. In addition, the move to the
cities has broken down the traditional social protection
networks, which means that everyone in a family helps
Although the World Bank classifies Zambia as a lower
middle-income country, poverty is still widespread. More
than half - 60 percent - of Zambians were considered
poor, according to a 2010 census and according to the
World Bank's calculations in a report on poverty from
2015. The number of poor people has also increased as a
result of population growth. In 2010, 7.9 million
Zambians were considered poor, compared with 6 million
Countryaah Official Site:
Official statistics for population in Zambia, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
Poverty is most widespread in rural areas, especially
in households where women are responsible for their
livelihoods. This is partly due to the fact that both
modern and traditional legal rules discriminate against
women. This applies mainly to legislation on marriage,
divorce, maintenance and inheritance.
Access to food has increased in recent years, but it
is still very uncertain as a result of recurring
drought. More than half of the children under five are
usually chronically malnourished.
More than half of the Zambian households have access
to clean water at a reasonable distance.
One million HIV infected
The social protection networks, including pensions,
include only the small group of Zambians who have a
formal employment. Others are referring to the help
their own family, relatives and friends can provide.
Zambia is severely affected by the HIV and AIDS
epidemic. About one million residents were estimated
to be HIV-infected in 2013, but the spread has slowed in
recent years. Among Zambians aged 15 to 49, 13 percent
were HIV-infected, according to the country's Ministry
of Health. The UN Children's Fund Unicef estimates
that over 600,000 children lost one or both parents due
to AIDS. HIV / AIDS-related illnesses are also a heavy
expense for healthcare.
Malaria is also a common disease. A major effort to
combat malaria was launched in 2006 and the campaign has
been successful. Among other things, increased use of
mosquito nets has reduced the number of deaths by half
and the number of infected children by a quarter.
Deficiencies in health care
It is difficult for those who are ill to receive
proper care. The country's financial problems during the
1990s led to cuts in the already deficient healthcare
sector. Clinics were closed and patient fees were
introduced. Although the country's improved economy in
recent years has made it possible to build new hospitals
and health centers, the lack of equipment, medicines and
qualified personnel is still a major problem. The
patient fees are reportedly now to be abolished for
people in the countryside, but in practice, those who
need care rarely get away without having to pay. For
example, a patient may need to obtain the medical
supplies needed to receive treatment.
It is becoming increasingly common for boys to be
circumcised, partly because it is perceived as a
hygienic measure and partly because it is assumed to
reduce the risk of spreading HIV. Circumcision in
connection with initiation rites for adulthood is
traditionally done especially in the northwest.
Circumcision also happens on a large scale at special
clinics. About a fifth of the men were circumcised in
The position of women in society is generally weak.
Women are discriminated against in terms of divorce,
maintenance and inheritance. Traditionally, women do all
the housework, take care of children and take care of
many of the agricultural activities in the countryside.
Violence against women is widespread. Child marriage is
As in many other African countries, homosexuality is
prohibited by law. There are harsh outcomes against
homosexuals from politicians, church leaders and local
leaders. Same-sex couples have been persecuted.
FACTS - SOCIAL CONDITIONS
40 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected
11.3 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
5.0 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men
2.4 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean
61.2 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to
26.4 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a
percentage of GDP
5.4 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person
US $ 57 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament
18 percent (2018)
Chiluba is convicted of embezzlement from the Treasury
A British court finds President Chiluba and several other people guilty of
having squandered a total of $ 46 million from Zambia's Treasury to fund
wasteful living. The case had been raised in court on the initiative of the
Zambian Prosecutor who tried to trace large sums that the Zambian Ministry of
Finance had sent to London. Chiluba and the other people are ordered to repay
the money but the verdict is never obeyed.
Demolition work is stopped
A national campaign to demolish slums around the cities is set in motion but
stopped when those who become homeless initiate legal proceedings against the
Several ministers may join because of corruption
President Mwanawasa dismisses several ministers, including his own
son-in-law, for corruption.
Several arrested for combating corruption
President Mwanawasa continues the campaign against corruption that he
initiated at his entry into power in 2002. Civil servants are warned and a
police chief and two other persons are arrested for corruption.
China mining investment in Zambia
Chinese President Hu Jintao visits the country and inaugurates a large mining
investment zone. He refrained from a planned visit to the mining district in the
north because of local protests against working conditions at a Chinese-owned
The government announces economic plan
The government is launching an economic plan aimed at encouraging foreign
investment and improving the country's health sector, school system and